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MR. YATES’ THIRTEENTH SPEECH.

MODERATORS, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN:

I appear before you again on the affirmative side of this question. In the first place, before we proceed further, there is a question of veracity at stake as to what I said during this discussion concerning the heathen. I want to state to you what I said in substance. I have stated it time and again. I drove Brother Potter, and he knows it, from the second chapter of Romans. I told him what I believed about the heathen—that those whop are without the law, but do the things that are in the law, are saved; and therefore there are very few of them saved, with the light they have. God’s Spirit operates upon the mind everywhere through the means employed; and when the revelation comes, that influence is upon all alike. He gives the opportunity to all. I will ask the reporter to read what I said upon that subject.

REPORTER READS: Thursday afternoon—” I never have made the impression intentionally that any would be saved in the heathen world without character or without living up to the law they had—the best light they had—doing the things that were contained in the law, though they were without the law, as spoken of in the second chapter of Romans.”

MR. YATES: Now you hear it.

Mr. POTTER: You say that was Thursday evening.  My impression is that a note I took was on Monday.

Mr. YATES: I will risk the book when it comes out, and I will say to the short-hand writer not to change that—that I never made any such statement in it.

Mr. POTTER: I have a note here, and I think it was on Monday I took it.

Mr. YATES: We will risk the short-hand writer about that; if you can bear it I can. I have stated that as my position time and again. My brother is aware of that, and he says I am honest and he loves me. He says I never drove him from any authority. I am go­ing to talk a little about that. He came here before this people, and in order to balance my argument that civilization is the result of Christianity he set up the Greek civilization side by side with it, and told us about Cecrops being its founder. Then I told him he knew nothing about it, and that Solon was really the founder of the civilization that gave to Greece her glory and greatness. Then he came before these people as an in­telligent man, and talked about Nimrod as the founder of Egypt. Any man that knows any thing about the his­tory of the civilization of the past knows the origin of Egypt’s civilization is lost in the antiquity of the past. He quoted a certain historian, leaving the impression up­on this people that for several centuries those who had carried the gospel, and taught the gospel, and suffered persecution were Baptists. That was the inference of his historian, Jones, who has been exposed as a falsifier, in his statements about the Waldenses. And I exposed his statements in regard to the missionaries who per­formed the great gospel work in Northern Europe in the early centuries being Baptists, from a better work than Jones has ever written. So we will see how much his authorities are worth. I wish to spend a moment or two on what he told you about my saying there were no Baptists who suffered as martyrs in the massacres of the Protestants during the reign of Charles IX. In commenting upon these terrible scenes he made the impression that all these martyrs were Regular Baptists, and triumphantly exclaimed: “We, as Regular Bap­tists, have the identity of the gospel line of work; for our people here, like the saints of old, were martyred­ for their devotion to the gospel.” I spoke to my brother while he was speaking, in order to keep from talking so much in this debate about his Church, and I asked him if these martyrs were all Baptists. And he reluct­antly said perhaps there may have been some other sects who suffered. Here is Buck’s Theological Dictionary; I want to read a few words from it. On page 438 he says: “Numerous were the persecutions of the different sects from Constantine’s time to the Reformation, and when the famous Martin Luther arose and opposed the errors and ambitions of the Church of Rome”—I never have said there were no Baptists among them; I have said the Baptists were good people, and I love them—“and the sentiments of this good man”—Luther—“began to spread, the pope and his clergy joined all their forces to hinder their progress.”

The other quotation he gave:  “A general council of the clergy was called. This was the famous Council of Trent, which was held for nearly eighteen consecutive years, for the purpose of establish­ing Popery in greater splendor, and preventing reform. The authors of the reform were anathematized and ex­communicated, and the life of Luther was even in dan­ger, but at last he died on a bed of peace.” So much for his point on that. Now we will dispense with that much of it.

He said Brother Darby set me right. He has got to take Brother Darby’s word for that, and Brother Darby says that he did not. I will tell him, just to be candid with him, that I believe my brethren thought me com­petent, or they would not have signed the documents endorsing me. I believe they are honest. I may not be so nicely situated as Brother Potter is, so as not to need any aid. I take all the aid I can get for the ad­vancement of my cause. He says he is one man that does not progress. He says I said it would take six days to prove my proposition. I think he should have had a short-hand writer present. I thought I told him that I wanted the subject thoroughly sifted, and wanted the great facts brought before the people.

Now, about the heathen. He gave us another lengthy talk about how many died per day, and that there was no justice in condemning these men who are without the gospel; yet he has been arguing for the last five days that God has a right to damn whom he pleases, or to save whom he pleases. How much better is it when a man who is not one of the Lord’s sheep is damned here in Owensville, under the sound of the gospel, because he was not put in the election list? And yet Brother Potter says God does not reprobate souls. But when he ran from the proof-texts I gave him he said, “Brother Yates has been giving me these proof-texts on the responsibility of man, and I believe it.” You do? What •is responsibility? God has given me a law, and I cannot keep it, and he will not help me to do so. If he helps my neighbor, that is no ad­vantage to me. He just sends me to the dark place, and that is the last of it. Brother Potter says that is the reason he does not believe in Foreign Missions. He does not damn many of the babies, but he puts in a great many of the big folks.

Now, about that potter; was not that a beautiful thing? I am glad he took that position. He said that I was mistaken. Look at his logic. He said I put the clay over on one side and the wax on the other; but he said there was no wax there. He thinks it would have been a good thing for me if there had been. I will give attention first to the potter and the clay, after which I am going to give him some quotations. He handed me a book; I knew he did not understand Madagascar when he said he did. I will read that after awhile, for fear, as well as he loves me, he might misread it. Now let me quote from the ninth chapter of Romans: Hath not the potter power over the clay”—in some instances he has, and in some he has not—“of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honor and another unto dishonor?” He says that the potter is God. So do I. According to his doctrine God has to make of this lump damned sinners as well as redeemed souls. O what a God that is! I did not claim that there was wax in this passage that speaks of the potter and the clay. I simply alluded to it in connection with the clay to show the different effects of the same sunlight upon each, to illustrate the different effects produced upon men by the very same divine influence. I thereby demonstrated that it is the state of men’s hearts, or their attitude toward God, that causes the softening or hardening of their hearts, or the divine shaping of their natures to- honor or dishonor; that the cause is not absolutely God’s sovereign, arbi­trary choice.

The idea of the apostle in this figure of the potter and the clay was to present the fact that God, in deal­ing with men as moral subjects of his divine government, whether as individuals or nations, requires conformity to his divine ideal of character upon moral choice in order that they may realize the blessings and honors of the molding and shaping of his divine providences. To live in violation of this requirement is to he shaped in dishonor and to be rejected and destroyed as unworthy for the Master’s service. This the apostle was picturing as the case of the Hebrews as a people. They had become vessels of dishonor by rejecting the true Messiah, Christ, the God-sent Saviour of the world. This is clearly taught at the close of the chapter, in the 31st and 32nd verses. This lump of clay represents both the Jewish and Gentile worlds, in this represen­tation the fulfillment of two prophecies, concerning the Hebrew and Gentile worlds, meet. If the lump of clay, as my opponent claims, represents the whole human family, from the beginning to the end of time, and if the vessels of honor shaped from it represent God’s elect, thus made by his absolute choice from eternity, then, since the dishonored vessels are also represented as being absolutely shaped by him, without their choice, would not these latter- have a right, according to the principle of equity, to demand of God, “Why hast thou made me thus?” The apostle rebukes the question­ing, by these dishonored vessels, of God’s right to shape them. But he does riot do this on the grounds that my brother claims—that God had an absolute right thus to make dishonorable vessels of men, regardless of merit or demerit on their part. The potter must have respect to the condition of the clay, in order successfully to shape a vessel according to the designed ideal. So the apostle would teach us that God, in the moral and spiritual order of things, in shaping either men or na­tions into honorable or dishonorable vessels, has respect to the attitude they sustain to him; and whether or not men or nations are made honorable vessels depends upon their moral choice, in conformity to the requirements of God’s ideal of character. Then the Jews, as a people who rejected Christ, the Divine ideal and act­ual Saviour of men, had no right to question the equity of God’s dealings with them in depriving them of their honored trusts and blessings as his peculiar people. Paul, in Romans ix. 22, 23, pictures God’s long forbear­ance with these vessels of wrath, made up for destruc­tion, in order to show God’s anxiety to have the He­brews, these vessels of dishonor by unbelief, to repent and become vessels of honor. This same idea is presented by the Apostle Paul in 2 Timothy ii. 20, 21,where he speaks of it being possible for one who is a dishon­ored vessel to he purged and cleansed, and thereby changed to an honored vessel. The same view is pre­sented in Jeremiah xviii. 4—8, inclusive. The prophet here represents Israel as a lump of clay, shaped into a vessel by the hands of the Lord as a potter, but marred on account of sins, thus becoming a vessel of dishonor. Jeremiah, by the authority of the Lord, declares unto Israel that if they will repent God will reshape them from a dishonored into an honored vessel. This com­pletely blots out Brother Potter’s doctrine of absolute election from eternity, and knocks the props from under him in regard to his sheep being saved from eternity, without regard to any agency on their part. It ever­lastingly destroys his objection to the Foreign Mission work as wholly unnecessary in propagating the gospel for the salvation of souls. It proves on the contrary that foreign missionaries are operating according to the very principles of the divine economy of salvation— viz., individual responsibility in salvation, and combined cooperation of the divine and human agency in prose­cuting the work of the world’s evangelization.

Brother Potter says of the advocates of Foreign Missions that his objection to their doctrine is, they damn all the heathen, roll them up by the wholesale, and just turn them over to eternal death. We do not teach it. If we did, it is a better doctrine than yours, which makes God damn men without their choice in order to mani­fest his power. That is your teaching. Now, if we had that big-nosed man here, and that boy to look at him we might raise a laugh! I have heard all those anec­dotes all my life, but I am willing to listen to them if it will keep Brother Potter in a good humor. I am in sympathy with men in hard places.

He said if 1 should live fifty years from today, and hear of him or Brother Hume preaching, I would be calling them missionaries. I wonder if he was ever over in Africa or Madagascar. I love Brother Hume and Brother Potter, as far as that is concerned, but do not think he ought to put a quotation into our Confes­sion that is not there. Let me see if he did that. John xii. 32 is the text. The Confession of Faith says: “And when he is come he will reprove the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment.” The text: “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.”

MR. POTTER: Is not that the proof-text of that sec­tion?

MR. YATES: Yes, but that is not the text you quoted. John xii. 33 is the verse you quoted. His memory was short. Jesus is going to draw all men unto him. Broth­er Potter is a Universalist. That is their main text. That is one of the strongest Universalist texts. “And I, if be lifted up, will draw all men unto me.” He says I am mistaken on that. Well, I will take the mistake, and I will say yet his theology is the same. “And I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto me.” Now, let us go farther. I want to look at those contradictions of the Confession of Faith, page 2.7. I will read: God the Father, having sent forth his Son Jesus Christ as a propitiation for the sins of the world, does most gra­ciously vouchsafe a manifestation of the Holy Spirit with the same intent to every man, the Holy Spirit op­erating through the written word, and through such other means as God in his wisdom may choose.” I want you to note that. First, it is through the written word the Holy Spirit operates, and then through such other means as God may choose, or directly without means. I do not suppose the brethren meant that there was no means at all. We believe the Holy Spirit op­erates independently of the Word, and yet in the Word. And we believe farther, just what Paul taught in that second chapter of Romans, yet it may be so interpreted or looked at as to leave this other part of God’s deal­ings with the human family where the gospel is not, with God, and we are not willing to take an stand that we have not a “thus saith the Lord” for. So moves upon the hearts of men as to enlighten, reprove, and convince them of sin and of their lost estate, and incline them to come to Christ.” Paul helps us out on that in Romans i. 20, and we stand with Paul right there: I do, and I believe the denomination does. “For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse” They have had the light. And further than that, Paul tells us in the 2d chapter, 12th verse, “For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law; for not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.” That is it. As many as sinned without law shall perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law. Then he goes on to say, “For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto them­selves.” That is, those that act up to the best light they have. But very few of them do that. If men in this enlightened land do not, what about the heathen in that benighted land? So you can see my position in regard to the heathen.

Now, I want to say this: that the gospel is the common ordained means in the work. I am not here to defend any particular individual as air individual, or any par­ticular creed, hut only the proposition under discussion—“Resolved, That the gospel work carried on by the different denominations in heathen lands or foreign countries, known as the Foreign Mission work, is authorized in the Scripture and blessed. and owned of God.” I have asked him time and again to show us a passage in accordance with his teaching. Now, he knows that we believe in the operation of the Holy Spirit just as strongly as he does, and that the uplifted Christ is a crucified Christ, and the crucified Christ an uplifted Jesus. Now, I think I have explained myself far enough not to be misunderstood upon this heathen question. I am far from throwing all heathen into hell, but I believe thousands of them are lost without the gospel. Look at the results. And yet Brother Potter says God has a right to do as he pleases. He says that he does not believe in Foreign Mission work—a work that has to be backed by an army. He has given me his own book, Appleton’s Cyclopedia, and I want to read it to you and see how much there is against Foreign Missions. Perhaps he will say to you, after I read it, that Paul did not have the backing of civil government. He did not. He did not have the civil government be­hind him. What gave to us our civil government? It was Christianity. The United States is under obliga­tions to protect their citizens anywhere. There is not a word said in this article claiming that religion was forced upon the people with the bayonet. This is an account given of that star of light, Madagascar, where many suffered martyrdom that they might propagate the gospel there. Appleton’s Cyclopedia, page 814, Madagascar: “In 1818 the London Missionary Society sent a number of missionaries, accompanied by artisans, to instruct the people. The native language was re­duced to writing, a grammar prepared, and the Bible translated and printed. In the course of ten years about 15,000 of the natives had learned to read, and a large number were converted to Christianity. Mr. Hastie, an Irishman sent by the British Government as its agent, resided several years at the capital, where he had great influence. His counsels, which all tended to promote civilization, had mi-much weight with Radamna, who was strongly imbued with the love of truth and justice, and was humane and gentle in character. The king gave all the encouragement in his power to the missionaries, and great advances were made in civiliz­ing the kingdom. Infanticide and other cruel customs were abolished. and rapid p1-ogress was made in the useful arts and in education. The premature death of Radama. in 1828, put a stop to the advance of Mada­gascar. He was succeeded by his widow, Ranavalona, who exerted herself to undo his work. The schools were closed amid the missionaries driven from the isl­and in 1835. The influence of the idol-keepers and

of the supporters of divination and other superstitions was restored to its former supremacy. The profession of Christianity by any of the natives was prohibited and violent persecution of the native Christians com­menced, in which many suffered martyrdom with he­roic fortitude. The French were expelled from their settlements on the east coast by Radama in 1825, and again by the queen’s troops in 1831. In 1845 the En­glish and French cruisers in those seas undertook to humble the Hovas, and, after fruitless conferences and attempts at negotiation, bombarded and burned Tama­tave and landed to attack the fort, but were repulsed with considerable loss. From this period all amicable intercourse between the French and English and the Madagascans ceased for eight years, till in 1853 com­mercial relations were renewed by the payment of an indemnity to the queen of the island. In 1846 the queen’s son, then seventeen years of age, embraced Christianity, and through his influence Christian doc­trines were more widely spread than ever; but in 1849 a fresh persecution broke out, and more than two thou­sand persons were arrested and punished for their faith, some of them with death. In 1857 a conspiracy organ­ized by French emissaries for the overthrow of the queen’s government led to another persecution of the Christians, in which two thousand persons were put to death. In 1861 Ranavalona died, and was succeeded by her son, Radama II., who proclaimed liberty to all relig­ions, released the Christian captives, and forbade sorcery and the ordeal by poison. The English missionaries returned, and Christianity made rapid progress. On May 12, 1863, he was murdered, and his widow, Rasoherina, made sovereign. She was a heathen, and the patron of the idols, but preserved liberty of worship. In 1867 a large church was erected in memory of the Christian martyrs. Rasoherina died April i, i868, and was succeeded by her sister, who took the name of Rasoherina II. She publicly pro­fessed Christianity on February 20, 1869, and has ex­erted her influence for the advancement of education. Three printing-presses are established at her capital, and during 1869, 36,243 books were issued, and in the first six months in 1870, 81,000 tracts, Bibles, Testaments and other books.” So there was no force at all, only in the attempt to protect the subjects, just as the United. States would do for any man or woman as a citizen that was imposed on, or as any Christian nation would do for its missionaries. And even the effort of the French and British Governments in this direction was a failure, and neither gave force nor security to the For­eign Mission work in Madagascar, but aggravated its surroundings and increased its obstacles. So in spite of the cruel persecutions of the Malagasy, the mission­ary work has accomplished its grand achievements among the Hovas, by its own agencies and means, and the Divine aid by which it has been guided and blessed. So says Mr. Appleton, whose work my op­ponent intended to draw upon me as a witness against the Foreign Mission work; but this authority proved to be a very strong witness in favor of missions, and as authority it must be first-class, or my worthy opponent would not have selected it.

Now, I want to notice this claim that I have failed to show that there is an identity between the Foreign Mis­sion work of today and the primitive Church. Now, I have shown you, if you remember, that the very same spirit that actuated the Christian workers in the primitive Church actuate the missionary workers of today and that they comply with the very same principles in the mission work. I have also shown you that as the for­eign missionaries of the first century suffered martyr­dom in the advancement of the gospel, so also the mis­sionaries of the Foreign Mission work of today have laid down their lives in like manner in prosecuting the gos­pel work in heathen lands. I have also shown the identity of the energizing and guiding power of the Holy Spirit, and of its design as manifest in the gospel work of the New Testament, with that of the Foreign Mission work of today as exhibited by its laborers both in the home and foreign field. The design of the gift of the Holy Spirit to the Church is to enable its members to witness for Christ to the world. Let me read that to you in regard to the Holy Spirit: “But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.” By the baptism of the Holy Spirit they were to be prepared to become witnesses unto the uttermost part of the earth; that was their mission. Jesus said, “Go preach the gospel to every creature “—go take the gospel. I have given proof-text after proof-text. I have shown you that the object of the mission work today and the mission work then are the same—to “preach the gospel to every creature.” I have shown that the end to be sub-served is the same exactly; I have shown further, that they were sent forth of God. The members of the prim­itive Church, in their preparation to carry out the great commission given by Christ, assembled together and prayed until they were baptized by the Holy Spirit and endued with power for the work. Then the Church went forth to witness for Jesus unto the uttermost parts of the earth, and God blessed the work. So it was with the Church in the seventeenth century. When its members went to God for the baptism of power by the Holy Spirit to fit them for the work, their spiritual life was wonderfully revived. The Church was so re­vived that it sent forth witnesses for Jesus to the re­motest parts of the earth—to the heathen lands. The laborers and witnesses have since been wonderfully blessed by God in their labors. That the apostles were slow to learn is seen in the fact that they did not at first comprehend the full meaning of the commission, for up to the revival at Antioch they directed their labors to the Jews only. When Peter went down to Joppa, in order to induce him to go from thence to Caesarea to preach the gospel to Cornelius, the Gentile, he had to have testimony from both the human and divine side, as I have shown in my former speeches. True, it is said of the Church at Jerusalem that they continued in the fellowship and doctrine of the apostles—that is, they entertained the same doctrinal views and had sym­pathies in common with the apostles in the work. This does not conflict with the statement I made, that the apostles in the beginning of the work did not realize the full extent of the commission. Peter certainly did not, as I have already ‘said, for the Lord had to give him a vision removing his national prejudices, to pre­pare him to preach the gospel to Cornelius, the Roman Centurion. That was as great an undertaking for Pe­ter, with his Jewish prejudices, and as grand a sacrifice, as for one today to give up his native land to go to the foreign field to preach the gospel of Christ to the heathen. The disciples at Jerusalem, who were scattered abroad by persecution, had gone everywhere preaching the Word. Some of them went to Antioch and had a great revival. The apostles at Jerusalem sent Barnabas to examine the nature of the work. He reported that the work was blessed and owned of God, though it was a Foreign Mission work among the Gentiles. You see the fire was spreading every­where. Those burning hearts, filled with life, working for Jesus, constrained by the love of Christ, went ev­erywhere, laboring for the salvation of souls. What was the result? The Gentiles were coming in; the brethren who where sent to see whether the evidence justified the report that came to them reported that the work was of God. What was a farther result? We find Paul and Barnabas sent out by the Church through the Holy Spirit. God’s church is his temple; he dwells in it. They were sent out into Asia Minor to preach the gospel, to tell the glad tid­ings of salvation. What more or farther? Now, we will read concerning it. We will take this very city we were talking about this morning, and see the results. Why, Corinth was one of the most corrupt cities of that day. It was a city noted for licentiousness as well as for glory and greatness—in fact, it was noted for every sin that the heathen are guilty of today. You remember this morning what I read to you in 1 Cor. vi. 9—the description of what they were before Paul went there: “Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor ef­feminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you “—such “were,” it is in the past  “but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.” Then in i Corinthians 1. 21: “For after that in the wisdom of God the-world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.” Now, here (pointing to the map) I have quoted to you from the very best authors in regard to the fruits in these islands in Oceania, and have shown you how wicked and depraved these men and women were, They were cannibals, they often feasted upon their en­emies, they buried their children and enemies alive, they engaged in every thing that was brutal and low. We do not need to show, the Scripture connection be­tween the gospel and Foreign Mission work in the-heathen lands, except to show the identity in spirit and in fruit. History shows that the Church has success just in proportion as it possesses the missionary spirit’ and manifests it in the work. And in the same propor­tion as it loses this spirit does it lose power and de­crease in growth. When the Church succeeds it shows the missionary spirit. Here (pointing to the Foreign Mission fields on the map) we see the results of the gospel work. They are just the same as the re­sults of the gospel preached by Paul and others at Philippi and Corinth and in all those cities where the gospel secured a hearing in the first century. Hence the fruits are identical. Now, I would like to read a quotation from Harris in his “Great Commission,” pages 151—154. I have not time to read it now, but I will just say, and make it good in my next speech, that in this apostolic period, when the Church depended too much upon worldly things and did not heed spiritual things, as ­guided by the Holy Spirit, it lost power and became ­only nominally Christian. But just in the proportion that: the missionary spirit prevailed did the Church prosper.

The gospel was sent to the nations of Northern Eu­rope, and though in this the Church was not as spiritual as we would desire, yet amid all the chaff there were grains of wheat  which fell here and there all over that country. The early Church did a good work also in preserving the manuscripts of the New Testament. Then there came the age of darkness, when there were only a few fruitful souls here and there. The life of the Church was not sufficient to carry out the work in sending the word abroad, for it was all that it could do to keep itself alive at home. Then came an­other great revival. The first impulse of revival life came through Wycliffe, who lived and labored from 100 to 200 years before the Reformation. During these intervening centuries there lived here and there such ear­nest, active gospel teachers and workers as John Huss, who further developed the already partially revived spir­itual life of the Church. But the Roman Catholics crushed out Wycliffe and Huss, and all other leading evangel­ical spirits in the revival work. Yet the fire was burn­ing and smoldering, until at last it burst out into the glorious Reformation, out of which came our great civ­ilization, which my brother confesses is the fruit of Christianity. Following the Reformation came a season of great apostasy to the Protestant Church. Follow­ing this came the great revival of the general religious work of the seventeenth century. Out of this grew the revival of the Church life which gave birth to our present marvelous epoch of the Foreign Mission work. Now, my friends, Brother Potter says he believes in civilization. He believes there are better homes and better society where the Bible is sent than where it is not. Now, if Christianity has given us our civilization, is not the civilization produced among the heathen by the gospel like it? Then they must be identical. Can a man live a pure and beautiful life, the reverse of the cor­rupt and debased life of the Corinthians, or the reverse of the debased and brutal lives of the heathen in the lands I have called your attention to on the map, with­out that transformation of character wrought by the in­fluence of the Holy Spirit?

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